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Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Cooperative Learning Model (CIRC)

Definition of CIRC Learning Model
CIRC Cooperative Learning The first type of CIRC was developed by Robert E. Slavin, Farnish, Stevans and Madden. The main reason for the development of this method is because of their concerns about teaching reading, writing and language art by teachers is still done traditionally. Cooperative learning of CIRC type in terms of language can be interpreted as a model of cooperative learning that integrates a whole reading and then composing it into important parts (Suyatno, 2009: 68).
CIRC is a comprehensive program to teach reading and writing in primary school classes at higher levels as well as in secondary schools (Slavin, 2009: 16). CIRC is one type of cooperative learning model. The cooperative learning approach emphasizes group goals and individual responsibility.
From several studies, this cooperative learning model can provide more learning than conventional learning models. This is because cooperative learning is built on two main theories of motivation and cognitive theory. From a motivational perspective, the cooperative objective structure creates a situation in which group members can succeed if their group is also successful (Slavin, 2009: 16). Cognitive theories themselves emphasize the influence of group collaboration, whether student work groups try to achieve group goals or not (Slavin, 2009: 36).

According to Slavin (2006) in relation to three studies on the CIRC program, found a positive effect on students’ reading abilities, including improved grades in reading exams and standardized languages. With CIRC learning strategy is expected students will be able to work together with his group considering CIRC strategy is one type of cooperative learning. In this CIRC learning strategy there is a sequence of presentations to be followed: partner reading, story structure, and related writing, words out loud, word meaning, story re-tell and spelling.
Co-operative CIRC is an integrated cooperative learning model of reading and writing, Steven & Slavin (Wijaya Jati, 2004: 35). Cooperative Learning Model CIRC is an abbreviation of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition, including one model of cooperative learning learning which was originally an integrated cooperative teaching of reading and writing that is a comprehensive or broad and comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing for high school classes basic. However, CIRC has grown not only in language lessons but also in exact subjects such as mathematics.
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) learning model can be categorized as integrated learning. According to Fogarty (1991), based on the nature of its integration, integrated learning can be grouped into:
1) model in one discipline that includes the connected model and the nested model;
2) interdisciplinary model which includes sequenced model, shared model, webbed model, theaded model and integreted model;
3) model in cross-student.
In CIRC learning or integrated learning each student is responsible for group work. Each member of the group exchanged ideas to understand a concept and complete the task, so that formed a long understanding and learning experience. This learning model continues to develop from elementary school (SD) to high school. This learning process educates students to interact socially with the environment.
The principle of integrated learning is in line with the four pillars of education outlined by UNESCO in the learning activities. The four pillars are “learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, learning to live together” (MoNE, 2002) ).
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) learning model can be categorized as integrated learning. According to Fogarty (1991), based on the nature of its integration, integrated learning can be grouped into:
1. models in one discipline that include the connected model and the nested model;
2. interdisciplinary model which includes sequenced model, shared model, webbed model, theaded model and integreted model;
3. models in cross-students.
This learning model, divided into several phases:
a. The first phase, that is orientation. In this phase, the teacher apersepsi and early knowledge of the students about the material to be given. It also describes the learning objectives that will be done to students.
b. The second phase, the organization. Teachers divide students into groups, taking into account academic heterogeneity. Distribute reading material about the material to be discussed to students. It also explains the mechanism of group discussion and the tasks that must be completed during the learning process.
c. The third phase is the introduction of concepts. By way of introducing a new concept which refers to the findings during the exploration. This introduction can be obtained from teacher information, textbooks, films, clippings, posters or other media.
d. The fourth phase, the publication phase. Students communicate their findings, prove, demonstrate the material discussed in the group or in front of the class.
e. The fifth phase, the reinforcement and reflection phase. In this phase the teacher provides reinforcement in relation to the material learned through explanations or giving real life examples. Furthermore, students were given the opportunity to
reflect and evaluate the learning outcomes.
According to Slavin (1995), CIRC’s primary objective, especially in using cooperative teams, is to help students learn to read a broad understanding for high school grades. Students working in a cooperative learning team identify five important things from a narrative story, namely perwatakan, setting, problem, effort to solve the problem, the end of the problem solving. The result of the study of story structure learning identifies that CIRC can improve students’ learning outcomes are low.
In addition, based on the results of the research, students can also create and explain predictions about how problems can be solved and summarize the main elements of a story to other story elements. Both activities are intended to improve students’ reading comprehension skills. The choice of CIRC learning strategy is based on findings from several studies and the results of scientific studies that prove and state that this CIRC learning strategy is a learning strategy that can be applied to improve students’ reading skills.
From this exposure we are able to see that this model is used in the field of language study and not mathematics, it suggests that this learning model is less suitable to be used in the field of study related to counting.
B. Components of the CIRC Learning Model
The CIRC learning model has eight components. The eight components are as follows:
a. Teams, ie the formation of heterogeneous groups consisting of 4 or 5 students;
b. The placement test, for example, is derived from the average previous daily test score or based on the report card value so that the teacher knows the strengths and weaknesses of the students in a particular field;
c. Student creative, performing tasks within a group by creating situations where individual success is determined or influenced by the success of the group;
d. Team study, which is the learning action steps that should be carried out by the group and the teacher provides assistance to the groups that need it;
e. Scoreboard and team recognition team, ie scoring of group work results and awarding criteria for the group that succeeded brilliantly and the group considered less successful in completing the task;
f. Teaching group, which provides brief material from teachers ahead of group assignment;
g. Facts test, ie test or test based on facts obtained by students;
h. Whole-class units, which are giving a summary of material by the teacher at the end of the learning time with problem-solving strategies.
C. Main Activities of CIRC Learning Model
In the CIRC learning model, students are placed in small, heterogeneous groups, consisting of 4 or 5 students. In this group is not distinguished by sex, ethnicity, or level of student intelligence. So, in this group there should be students who are smart, moderate or weak, and each student should feel comfortable with each other.
With group learning, students are expected to improve their critical, creative, and nurturing social minds. Before a group is formed, students are taught how to work together in a group. Students are taught to be good listeners, can give explanations to group friends, discuss, encourage other friends to work together, appreciate the opinions of other friends, and so forth. One of the characteristics of cooperative learning is the ability of students to work together in small, heterogeneous groups. Each member in the group has an equivalent task. Because in cooperative learning the success of the group is very concerned, then the clever students take responsibility to help their weak friends in the group. Thus, clever students can develop their skills and skills, while weak students will be helpful in understanding the problems solved in the group. Slavin ((1995: 98) states that “in addition to solving the problems of management and motivation in individualized programmed instruction, CIRC was created to take advantage of the considerable socialization potential of cooperative learning”.
The principal activities in CIRC to solve story problems include a series of specific joint activities:
1. One member of the reading group or some members read each other.
2. Make predictions or interpret the content of the story, including writing what is known, what is asked, and asked with a particular variable.
3. Mutual make an overview or plan for solving the story
4. Write down the completion of the story in sequence (write down the order of the composition of the solution
5. Mutually revise and edit work / settlement (if anything needs to be revised).
The main elements of this CIRC are:
1. Reading group. The students are divided into groups of reading consisting of two or three people based on the level of reading ability determined by the teacher.
2. Team. The students are divided into pairs in their reading groups, and then the pairs are divided into teams consisting of couples from two reading groups.
3. Activities related to the story. In groups of students, teachers determine the purpose of reading, introducing new vocabulary, repeating old vocabulary, discussing the story after students finish reading, and so on
By adopting Cooperative Learning model of CIRC type to train students to improve their skills in solving the story problem, then the step taken by a subject teacher is as follows.
1. The teacher explains a certain subject to his students (eg by expository method).
2. Teachers provide practice questions including how to solve stories.
3. Teachers are ready to train students to improve their students’ skills in solving story problems through the implementation of CIRC Cooperative Learning.
4. Teachers form heterogeneous learning groups of students (Learning Society). Each group consists of 4 or 5 students.
5. Teachers prepare 1 or 2 story questions and share them with each student in the group that has been formed.
6. Teacher informs that in each group occurs
a series of specific activities as follows:
1) One member of the reading group or some members read each other about the story.
2) Make predictions or interpret the contents of the story, including writing down what is known, what is asked, and mempisalkan asked with a particular variable.
3) Mutual make an overview or plan for completion of the story.
4) Write the completion of the story in sequence (write down the order of the composition of the solution).
5) Mutually revise and edit the work / settlement (if anything needs to be revised).
6) Submit results of group assignments to teachers.
7) Each group works based on a series of CIRC (Team Study) pattern activities. The teacher went around supervising the group work
8) The group leader, reporting on the group’s success or reporting to the teacher about the obstacles experienced by the members of the group. Where appropriate, teachers may provide proportional support to groups.
9) The group leader should be able to determine that each member has understood, and can work on the story given by the teacher.
10) The teacher asks the representative of a particular group to present their findings in front of the class.
11) The teacher acts as a resource or facilitator if necessary.
12) The teacher assigns a PR assigned individually to the students about the subject being studied
13) The teacher can dissolve the group formed and the students return to their seats.
14) Toward the end of the lesson time, the teacher can repeat the classical story-solving strategy.
15) Teachers can provide formative tests, in accordance with the specified TPK / competency.

D. Application of CIRC Learning Model
In fact, in materials understood by experts, this CIRC learning model is not widely used in the field of mathematics or subjects related to the counting world. This CIRC learning model is more commonly used in language subjects. Application of CIRC learning model to improve problem solving ability can be reached by:
1. The teacher explains a subject of mathematics to the students, in this study used LKS containing the material to be taught at each meeting
2. Teachers provide practice questions
3. Teachers are ready to train students to improve their students’ skills in solving problem solving problems through application of CIRC model
4. Teachers form heterogeneous student learning groups
5. The teacher prepares problem solving questions in the form of problem cards and distributes them to each group
6. The teacher informs that in each group a series of specific joint activities takes place
7. Each group works based on CIRC’s core activities. The teacher supervises group work
8. The group leader reports on the group’s success or obstacles
9. The group leader should be able to determine that each member has understood, and can work on the problem-solving questions provided
10. Teacher asks group representatives to present their findings
11. The teacher acts as a resource or facilitator
12. Teachers assign assignments / PRs individually
13. Teachers disperse groups and students back to their seats
14. Teachers repeat the classical problem solving strategy problem solving
15. Teacher gives quiz
E. CIRC Learning Steps
CIRC type cooperative learning in terms of language can be interpreted as a cooperative learning model that integrates a whole reading and then composed it into
important parts. The main activities in the CIRC to solve problem-solving problems include a series of specific joint activities to achieve the expected goals in the lesson. The steps are:
a. Form groups consisting of four people heterogeneously.
b. Teachers provide discourse on the topic of learning.
c. Students work together to read each other and find the main idea and respond to the discourse / clipping and written on a sheet of paper.
d. Present or read out group results.
e. The teacher makes the conclusion
f. Learning
The steps according to Suprijono (2009) in learning this CIRC model are:
1. Establish groups of 4 members heterogeneously
2. Teachers provide discourse / clippings according to the topic of learning
3. Students work together to read each other and find the main idea and respond to the discourse / clipping and written on the sheet of paper.
4. Present / read out group results
5. The teacher makes a conclusion together
6. Closing
The way to determine the members of the group is as follows:
a. Determine the rank of students by finding information about the average score of the student score on the previous test or the value of report cards. Then sorted by ranking from the highest academic ability to the lowest.
b. Determine the number of groups. The number of groups is determined by taking into account the many members of each group and the number of students in the class.
c. Preparation of group members. Grouping is determined on the basis of the student rankings that have been created. Each group is endeavored to have students who have various capabilities, so have a balanced average ability.
d. Furthermore, the main activities in CIRC in solving the problem solving problem also includes other activities, namely: (1). One member or several groups read about the problem, (2). Make predictions or interpret the problem-solving contents, including writing down what is known, what is being asked and supposing it is asked with a variable, (3). Mutual make an overview / problem solving plan, (4). Write down the problem solving problem in sequence, and (5). Mutually revise and edit work / settlement.

F. Advantages and Disadvantages of CIRC Learning Model
Advantages of CIRC Learning Model
Like other learning models, the CIRC learning model has the same advantages and disadvantages in its application.
The advantages of CIRC cooperative learning model are as follows:
1. CIRC is very appropriate to improve students’ skills in solving problem-solving problems
2. Teacher’s dominance in learning is reduced
3. Students are motivated on the results thoroughly, as they work in groups
4. Students can understand the meaning of problems and check each other’s work
5. Helping weak students
6. Improving learning outcomes, especially in solving problems in the form of problem solving
7. The experience and learning activities of the students will always be relevant to the child’s developmental level;
8. all learning activities are more meaningful for the students so that students’ learning outcomes will last longer;
9. generate motivation to learn, broaden insights and aspirations of teachers in
10. Activities selected in accordance with and depart from student interests and the needs of the child;
11. All learning activities are more meaningful for the students so that students’ learning outcomes will last longer;
12. Integrated learning can foster children’s thinking skills;
13. Integrated learning presents activities that are pragmatic (beneficial) in accordance with the problems often encountered in the child’s environment;
14. Integrated learning can foster students’ learning motivation towards dynamic learning, optimal and efficient;
15. Growing children’s social interactions such as cooperation, tolerance, communication and respect for the ideas of others;
16. Generating motivation to learn, broaden the insights and aspirations of teachers in teaching (Saifulloh, 2003).
Disadvantages of the CIRC Learning Model
Lessons from the CIRC learning model include:
In this learning model can only be used for subjects that use the language, so this model can not be used for subjects such as mathematics and other subjects that use the principle of counting.

Conclusion
This learning model is very good to use because by using this model students can directly understand the events that occur in life with the material described. But in the use of field study related to the calculation is less satisfactory.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri and Zain, Aswan. 2010. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
E.Slavin, Robert. Cooperative Learning (Theory, Research, and Practice). Bandung: Nusa Media.2005
Suyatno. Exploring Innovative Learning. Jatim: Masmedia Buana Pustaka. 2009
Orphan Riyanto, The New Paradigm of Learning as Reference for Education In the Implementation of Effective Learning. Jakarta: Kencana, 2009).
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