A. the theory of learning model creative problem solving according J. Bruner in Hidayat (2004: 8) learning is an active processes that allows people to find new things out of the information given to him. knowledge need to be learned in stages of certain that knowledge can internalized in mind (the structure of cognitive) human learn. process internalization will happen seriously (which means the learning process occurs optimally) if the knowledge was studied in stages as follows:
a learning phase where knowledge studied actively by using the objects concrete or situation real.
a learning phase where knowledge represented (realized) in the form of the shadow of the visual. (visual imagery), image or diagram illustrating activities concrete or situation concrete contained in stage enaktif.
a learning phase where the knowledge that represented in the form of symbols abstract, both symbol-symbol verbal (for example the letters, words or sentences), symbols of mathematics and symbols more abstract (Hidayat, 2004: 9)
a learning process will take place optimally if learning begins with phase enaktif, and then if stage learn the first is considered, students switch to the stage of learning the second, the stage of learning by using the mode representation of the iconic. subsequently learning activities that continued on the third stage, the stage of learning by using the mode representation symbolic.
model creative problem solving (CPS) is a learning model did concentration on teaching and problem-solving skills, followed by strengthening skills. when faced with a question, students can skills solve the problem to choose and develop response. not only way to memorize without thought, skills solve the problem expand thought processes (pepkin, 2004: 1).
while according to Karen (dewi, 2008: 28) model creative problem solving (CPS) is a learning model did concentration on teaching and problem-solving skills, followed by strengthening skills.
by using the learning model is expected to raise interest at once creativity and student motivation in the study of mathematics, so that the students can benefit maximum both in the process and the results of learning.
a matter of considered as the problem is a matter that require the authenticity of thinking without danya example settlement before. problem in contrast to a matter of practice. on the matter of exercise, students know how to solve it, as has been clearly between the relationship between known to that question, and usually there has been an example of a matter. on the issue of students don’t know how to solve it, but students interested and challenged to finish. students use all of thought, select the strategy of the solution, and process to find the completion of a problem (suyitno, 2000: 34).
B. the principle of learning model creative problem solving (CPS) CPS a representation of the dimensions of the natural, not a business imposed. CPS an approach dynamic, students become more skilled for students have internal procedures more is composed from scratch. there are many activities involving the creativity in solving problems such as research document, observations on the environment around, activities related to science, and writing creative. with the CPS, students can choose and develop idea and thoughts. contrast to the memory little use of thought, CPS expand thought processes. objectives of the CPS are as follows:
a. students will be able to declare the order of the steps problem solving in the CPS.
b. students able to find the possibilities of problem solving strategies.
c. students able to evaluate and select the possibilities of the relation to the criteria there.
d. students able to choose an option optimal solution. Hey. students able to develop a plan in implementing the problem solving strategies.
e. students able to articulate how CPS can be used in the areas / situation.
Osborn (1963), said that the CPS have 3 procedures, namely:
a) find the fact, involving depiction problem, collect and researching a data and information is concerned.
b) find the idea, related to bring up and modify the idea of problem solving strategies.
c) find solution, which is the process evaluative as the top of problem solving.
C. steps learning model cooperative problem solving (CPS)
the process of learning model creative problem solving (CPS), according to pepkin (dewi, 2008: 30) consists of steps as follows:
1. clarification problem
clarification problems include the provision of explanation to the students of the issues raised, so that students can understand about the completion of like what to expect.
2. disclosure opinion
at this stage students released to Express the opinion of a wide range of strategy troubleshooting.
3. evaluation and elections
on stage evaluation and this election, each group discuss opinion-opinion or strategies which fit to resolve the problem.
at this stage students determine strategy which can be taken to resolve the problem, then apply it to find the completion of the problem.
with familiarize students using the steps creative in solve the problem, expected to help students to overcome the difficulty in the study the math. implementation model creative problem solving technology-based learning mathematics:
the early stages
teachers ask readiness students in the following the teaching mathematics, then review back matter the previous be prasayarat material will be studied students and explain the rules of the learning mathematics using model creative problem solving technology-based. teacher also motivate students about the importance of learning to be implemented.
stage of the core
students form a small group to do small discussion. each group consisting of 4-5 students who formed by teachers and permanent. each group received module, lks and interactive CD that contains the learning materials and problems for discussed in the group. as a group of students solve the problems that contained in ‘lks’ and CD in accordance with the instructions available in it. student gets guidance and sign of teachers in solve the problem. role of teachers in this case is creating a situation that can facilitate the emergence of questions and directing activities brainstorming in order to answer questions on the basis of interest students. emphasis in the assistance of students in resolve the problem is as follows:
a. clarification problem
after teachers explains learning materials mathematics, students are grouped into small groups and receive some projects related to the subject matter. teacher with students ‘clarifying the existing problems in the project so students know the solution to expect from the project. in this stage, each group proposal to teacher of the project will be solved the problem.
b. disclosure of the idea
students digging and expression much related to the problem solving strategies faced in the project.
c. evaluation and selection
after obtained list of the ideas, students with teachers and other friends evaluate and select a variety of idea of problem solving strategies, so in the end obtained a strategy optimal and right.
in this stage, students with group decided on problem solving strategies in the project. and implement strategies selected in solve problems in accordance with the proposal that has been submitted. after finished work students with group present his work in front of the class by using the media in accordance with the creativity to communicate ideas and advice and criticism of the other hand so obtained optimal solution related to the problem solving. then teacher with students concluded learning materials to the direction of mathematics formal.
stage of the cover.
as the consolidation of material, individual students working on pop quiz displayed with learning media and teachers give points for students are able to solve problems as an attempt to motivate students in the work questions. a matter of considered as the problem is a matter that require the authenticity think the absence of an example of the settlement before. problem in contrast to a matter of practice. on the matter of exercise, students know how to solve it, as has been clearly the relationship between known to that question, and generally there has been an example of a matter. on the problem, students don’t know resolve. students use all of thought, select the strategy of the solution, and process to find the completion of a problem.
with familiarize students using the steps creative in solve the problem, expected to help students to overcome the difficulty in the study of mathematics. of the description of the researchers concluded that the flow think learning model creative problem solving can be described as follows:
flow think learning model creative problem solving can be explained that the learning model creative problem solving started thinking:
a. learning based on the problem.
based learning problems (problem-based learning) is a learning approach using real-world problems as a context for students to learn about how critical thinking skills and problems, and to obtain the knowledge and the concept of essential of the subject matter. based learning problem is used to stimulate think a high level in the situation oriented problems, including learn how to learn. the role of teachers in-based learning problem is present the problem, filed problem can not be held without teacher develop classroom environment that allows the Exchange of ideas openly. based learning problems developed especially to help students develop the ability think, problem solving, skills and intellectual; study on a variety of the role of adults through the involvement of them in a real experience or simulation, and be a learner autonomous and independent.
active learning is a state in which students can construct own knowledge studied, not just sit listen explanation teacher only. students are more actively participate way so that the student activities in the learn much more dominant of the activities of teachers in teaching.
learn require activity, without learning activities may not going well. students if given task or trust and get a chance to do something own, then they will be happy and full of truth will perform tasks on that occasion. therefore, in the students’ learning should be given the opportunity to work on its own, try own and take care of his own, thus will arise by itself great attention, arising pleasure and satisfaction, as a result of learning will become his and functional. forms of activity of the embodied in the form of activities, such as: listen, writing, read, discussions, ask, pay attention, complete or tasks and so forth
creativity is activities ability or thinking person to produce something useful, it can be understood, and new at least for the individual concerned and find many possible answer to a problem, where the emphasis on the quantity and efficiency made by a combination and information, or the elements of the existing. creativity or creative thinking operationally formulated as a process that reflected in the smooth, flexibility and originality in think.
can be explained that the learning model creative problem solving with props is a form of learning has three elements of the principal:
1. encourage students critical thinking and skilled resolve
2. encourage students to more active with learning model this.
3. encourage students to creative using the props as learning media. steps in the CPS according to William E. Mitchell and Thomas F. kowalik (Rahman, 2009: 10) is:
a. mess-finding (find problem perceived as a bully).
the first stage, is an effort to identify the situation perceived annoying.
b. fact-finding (find the fact).
the second stage, sign up all the well known fact related to the situation, the required to identify the information unknown but essential on situs that being identified and sought.
c. problem-finding (find problem).
on the stage find a problem, attempted identify all possible statement problems and then choose the most important or underlying problem.
at this stage attempted to find a number of ideas or the idea that may be used to solve the problem.
on the stage of the discovery of solutions, ideas or ideas troubleshooting selected, to find the idea of the most appropriate to solve the problem.
trying to get acceptance of the solution problems, arrange action plan and implement the solution.
D. advantages and disadvantages of creative problem solving
advantages learning model creative problem solving
educate students to think systematically.
able to look for a variety of way out of a difficulties.
learn analyze a problem from various aspects.
educate students believe yourself.
disadvantages learning model creative problem solving
takes quite a lot.
if in the group ability members heterogeneous, the students who are good at will dominate in discussions are students less clever be a passive as a listener only.
model creative problem solving (CPS) is a learning model did concentration on teaching and problem-solving skills, followed by strengthening skills. when faced with a question, students can skills solve the problem (problem solving) to choose and develop response. not only way to memorize without thought, skills solve the problem expand thought processes. a matter of considered as the problem is a matter that require the authenticity think the absence of an example of the settlement before. problem in contrast to a matter of practice. on the matter of exercise, students know how to solve it, as has been clearly between the relationship between known to that question, and usually there has been an example of a matter. in this issue, students don’t know how to solve it, but students interested and challenged to finish. students use all of thought, select the strategy of the solution, and process to find the completion of a trouble.
pepkin k.l. 2004. a creative problem solving in math.
dewi, Hey P. 2008. effect of the application of learning model creative problem solving (CPS) in learning mathematics on the ability of reasoning adaptive mathematics high school students. thesis fpmipa UPI. London.
suyitno, Amen, the basics and learning process mathematics. (Semarang: education math science unnes, 2000).
Rahman, B. 2009. comparison of the ability of the connection of mathematical students learning using model creative problem solving (CPS) with students learning using conventional models. thesis fpmipa UPI. London.
Hidayat. 2004. diktat lecture theory learning mathematics. Semarang: science unnes.