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Think Talk Write (TTW) Learning Models

1. Understanding Learning Model Think, Talk, Write (TTW)
Think (thinking) is the whole brain utilization technique by using visual image and other graphical infrastructure to form the impression. In thinking, the brain often remembers information in the form of images, symbols, sounds, shapes and feelings. In thinking of using these visual and sensory reminders in a pattern of related ideas. Like a road map used to learn, organize and plan. This way of thinking can generate original ideas and trigger easy memories. (Hernacki Mike, 1992: 152)
Talk (spoken communication) can be used in all kinds of learning situations, but is not the only tool. For low-grade elementary school it may be the most effective oral communication. But in the higher classes, when children are good at reading, written materials, and pictures are no less effective than verbal communication. Verbal communication (speaking) benefits a lot in different learning situations, such as providing study guidance, in giving feedback or feedback, or starting a new topic. (Nasution, 1992: 195-196)
Write is an entire brain activity that uses the right hemisphere (emotional) and the left hemisphere (logic). Good writing utilizes both sides of the brain. (Hernacky Mike, 1992: 179)
Thus, think talk write is a learning where students are given the opportunity to start learning by understanding the problem first, then actively engaging in group discussions, and finally writing in their own language the learning outcomes they get.
Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning model is a learning model developed by Huinker and Laughlin. Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning model is based on the understanding that learning is a social behavior. In this learning model, learners are encouraged to think, talk, and then write about a topic. This method is a method that can train students’ ability to think and speak.
According to Huinker and Laughlin (1996: 82) states that “Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning models build thinking, reflect, and organize ideas, then test the idea before learners are expected to write. The flow of Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning model begins with the involvement of learners in thinking or dialogue reflectively with themselves, then talking and sharing ideas with their friends, before the students write “.
Think-Talk-Write (TTW) learning model involves 3 important steps that must be developed and done in learning mathematics, as follows:
a) Think (Thinking or Reflective Dialog)
According to Huinker and Laughlin (1996: 81) “Thinking and speaking / discussing is an important step in the process of bringing understanding into the writing of learners”. In this stage, individual learners think about possible answers or methods of mathematical solution, make small notes on ideas contained in the passage, and things they do not understand in their own language.
According to Martinis Yamin and Bansu I. Ansari (2008: 85) “The activity of thinking can be seen from the process of reading a mathematical text or containing a mathematical story then making a record of what has been read”. In making or writing notes learners distinguish and unite the ideas presented in the text reading, then translate into their own language.
According to Wiederhold as quoted by Martinis Yamin and Bansu I. Ansari (2008: 85) “Making a note means analyzing the purpose of the content of the text and check the written materials”. In addition, learning to create / write notes after reading stimulates thinking activities before, during, and after reading, so as to enhance knowledge and even improve thinking and writing skills.
According to Gusni Satriawati (2006: 2-3) “In mathematical learning mathematical thinking is classified into two types, namely low-level thinking and high-level thinking”. Examples of low-level mathematical thinking, which perform simple counting operations, apply mathematical formulas directly, and follow standard procedures, while high-level thinking is characterized by the ability to understand mathematical ideas in more depth, observe data and recognize implicit ideas, construct conjectures, , generalizations, logical reasoning solve problems, communicate mathematically, and associate mathematical ideas with other intellectual activities.
At this stage learners will read some of the problems given on the Student Activity Sheet (LKS), then after reading the learner will write down the known and unknown about the problem (making individual notes). Further learners are required to solve existing problems individually. The process of thinking there is this stage will be seen when learners read the problem then write down what is known and unknown about a problem. In addition, thought processes will occur when learners attempt to solve problems in individual LKSs.
b) Talk (Speaking or Discussing)
At the talk stage learners are given the opportunity to reflect on, organize, and test ideas in group discussion activities. According to Huinker and Laughlin (1996: 81) “Learners who are given the opportunity to discuss can: (1) connect a language they know from their own experience and background with the language of mathematics, (2) analyze and synthesize mathematical ideas, 3) nurturing collaboration and helping build classroom learning “. In addition, Huinker and Laughlin (1996: 88) also meyebutkan that “Discussion can improve the exploration of words and test ideas. Discussion can also improve understanding. When learners are given a lot of opportunities for discussion, understanding will build up in the learner’s writing, and then writing can contribute to building understanding “. In essence, at this stage learners can discuss their knowledge and test their new ideas, so they know what they really know and what they really need to learn.
Martinis Yamin and Bansu I. Ansari (2008: 86) expressed an important talk in mathematics because as the main way to communicate in mathematics, forming ideas through talking process, improving and assessing the quality of thinking because talking can help determine the level of understanding of learners in learning mathematics.
At the talk stage allows the learner to be skilled at speaking and the learner will practice doing mathematical communication with the group members verbally. The issues to be discussed are issues that the learner has previously thought about at the stage of the think. In general, learners according to Huinker and Laughlin (1996: 82) talking can take place naturally but not writing. The process of talking learners learn through life as individuals who interact with the social environment. By discussing can increase the activity of learners in class. Communicating in a discussion creates a learning environment that encourages learners to communicate among learners to improve learners’ understanding because when learners discuss, learners construct ideas to put forward.
c) Write (Write)
Individuals and Wisniowska (1996: 95) mentioned that “Writing can help learners to express stored knowledge and ideas to be more visible and reflect their knowledge and ideas”.
Shield and Swinson (1996: 35) say that “writing in mathematics can realize the ultimate goal in learning, namely the understanding of learners about the material that has been taught”. In addition, through writing activities in learning mathematics, learners are expected to understand that mathematics is built through a dynamic thinking process, and is expected to also understand that mathematics is a language or a tool for expressing ideas.
Both individuals and Wisniowska (1996: 95) also mentioned that “the writing benefits of learners to teachers are (1) direct written communication of all class members, (2) information about mistakes, misconceptions, thinking habits, and beliefs of the participants students, (3) variance of learners’ concepts from the same idea, and (4) tangible evidence of student achievement or achievement “. Writing activities of learners at this stage include: writing solutions to a given problem / question including calculation, organizing all the work step by step (either completion, some using charts, graphs, or tables for easy reading and action), correcting all jobs so that believes that no work or calculation is missing, and believes that his best work, which is complete, easy to read and assured of its authenticity (Martinis Yamin and Bansu I. Ansari, 2008: 88).
At this stage, learners will learn to communicate math in writing. Based on the results of the discussion, learners dimita to write the completion and conclusions of the problems that have been given. What the learners write at this stage may be different from what the students wrote on the individual notes (stage think). This happens because after the learner discusses he will get a new idea to solve the problems that have been given.

2. Principles of Learning Model Think, Talk, Write (TTW)
Principles of activity in learning in this case will be seen from the standpoint of the development of mental conception according to the science of the soul. By looking at the psychological elements of a subject of learning / subject learn, can be known how the principle of activity that occurs in learning it. Because viewed from the perspective of psychology, then of course the focus of attention is a human component that conducts activities in teaching and learning, namely students and teachers.
Think, talk, write also has some fixed principles or truths, one of which is:
? Everything Thinking
All students from the classroom are expected to think to solve math problems with their respective groups.
? Everything Speaks
Everything from the classroom to your body language, from the paper you share to your learning design; all send messages about learning.
? Everything Writing
After students think to solve math problems and express opinions in their group. Shiva wrote down all that they had discussed and agreed upon by their group.

3. Steps in the Think-Talk-Write (TTW) Learning Model
According to Halmaheri (2004: 21-22), the learning steps with the TTW (think-talk-write) strategy are as follows:
a. preliminary
1) Inform the material to be learned and the learning objectives to be achieved.
2) Explain about the learning technique with TTW strategy and student tasks and activities.
3) Perform apersepsi.
4) Provide motivation for students to play an active role in learning.
5) Divide students in small groups (3 – 5 students).
b. Core activities
1) The teacher divides the Student Worksheet (LKS) to the students.
2) Individual students are required to present their ideas on possible answers and / or resolving steps to the given problem and what are known and / or unknowns written in the form of small notes that will be the material for group discussion (think ).
3) Students discuss the results of their notes (exchanging ideas) in order to obtain group agreements (talk). Teachers walk around the classroom to monitor the course of the discussion and if it is necessary teachers can help as needed.
4) Individually, students write down all the answers to the problems given in full, clear and easy to read (write).
5) Some group representatives are randomly selected to present the results of the discussion in front of the class, while the non-selected group responds or responds.
c. Cover
Teachers with students draw conclusions from the material they have learned.
In general, the Think-Talk-Write (TTW) learning model has steps (syntax) in learning, which are as follows:
1) The teacher divides the Student Worksheet (LKS) containing the problems that the learners must solve. If required a little guidance is given.
2) Learners read the problems that are in the LKS and make individual notes about what he knows and does not know in the matter. When learners make small notes this will happen the process of thinking (think) in learners. After that learners try to solve the problem individually. This activity aims to learners can distinguish or unite ideas contained in the reading to then be translated into their own language.
3) Learners discuss with friends in the group discuss the contents of the note he made and solving problems done individually (talk). In this activity they use their own language and words to convey mathematical ideas in the discussion. Discussion is expected to produce a solution to the given problem. Discussion will be effective if group members are not too numerous and consist of group members with heterogeneous capabilities. This is in line with Huinker and Laughlin’s (1996: 82) opinion that “TTW methods will be effective when learners work in heterogeneous groups of 2 to 6 learners working to explain, summarize, or reflect.”
4) From the results of the discussion, students individually formulate knowledge in the form of answers to the problem (contains the basis and relevance of concepts, methods, and solutions) in the form of writing (writing) with his own language. In that paper the learner connects the ideas that he gets through the discussion.
5) Group representatives present the results of group discussions, while other groups are asked to respond.
6) The final activity of learning is to make reflections and conclusions on the material being studied. Prior to that, selected or one of the learners as representatives of the group to present the answer, while other groups were asked to respond.

4. Benefits of Learning Model Think, Talk, Write (TTW)
Benefits for students is to help improve the mastery of student concepts to be used in solving mathematical problems in the form of problems, and as an illustration for students in understanding the ways of learning and can compare it between learning with learning procedures think, talk, write with approach or other learning model . Can generate original ideas and trigger easy memories. Giving tutoring, in giving feedback or feedback, or starting a new topic. Can train the ability to think and speak learners. Left and right brain work can be balanced.
Benefits for teachers that can provide input and ideas about the model of learning, and can know the extent to which the mastery of mathematical concepts applied in the learning activities in the classroom so that teachers are able to see the development of student abilities.

5. Weakness and Advantages of Learning Model Think, Talk, Write (TTW)
The Think-Talk-Write (TTW) learning model has several weaknesses and advantages in learning, among which are:
Advantages:
a. Students become more critical.
b. All students are more active in the learning process.
c. Students are more familiar with the material being studied.
d. Can assist students in constructing their own knowledge so that students better understand the concept.
e. Students can communicate and discuss their thoughts with their friends, so they help each other and exchange ideas.
f. Model learning strategy TTW can train students to write the results of the discussion into the form of writing in a systematic, so that students will better understand the material.
g. Help students communicate their ideas orally and in writing in order to solve a problem.

Weakness:
a. Students will simply feel overwhelmed with the many tasks.
b. For one thing the material takes up considerable time.
c. Learning with this system, can lead to migration of motivation from the external level on the internal level.
d. Only certain students can follow this method.
e. Teachers will find it difficult to assess students if they do not observe well.
f. With leluasanya learning then if the flexibility is not optimal then the purpose of what is learned will not be achieved.
g. Group assessment can blind individual judgments when teachers are not observant in their implementation.
h. Developing group consciousness takes a long time.
i. Teachers must prepare the learning maturely, in addition it requires more energy, thought, and time.
j. During the group discussion activities, there is a tendency for the topic of the issues discussed to be widespread so that many are not in accordance with the time specified.
k. When class discussions are sometimes dominated by a person, this leads to another passive student.

CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
Based on the discussion that has been alluded to above data then, obtained the following conclusions:
Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning model is a learning model developed by Huinker and Laughlin. Think, Talk, Write (TTW) learning model is based on the understanding that learning is a social behavior. In this learning model, learners are encouraged to think, talk, and then write about a topic. This method is a method that can train students’ ability to think and speak.
Think-Talk-Write (TTW) learning model involves 3 important steps that must be developed and done in learning mathematics, as follows: 1) think; in this stage, individual learners think about possible answers or methods of mathematical solution, make small notes on ideas contained in the reading, and things they do not understand in their own language. 2) talk; in this stage, individual learners think about possible answers or methods of mathematical solution, make small notes on ideas contained in the reading, and things they do not understand in their own language. 3) write; at this stage, learners will learn to communicate math in writing. Based on the results of the discussion, learners dimita to write the completion and conclusions of the problems that have been given. What the learners write at this stage may be different from what the students wrote on the individual notes (stage think). This happens because after the learner discusses he will get a new idea to solve the problems that have been given.
In general, the Think-Talk-Write (TTW) learning model has steps (syntax) in learning, which are as follows:
1) The teacher divides the Student Worksheet (LKS) containing the problems that the learners must solve. If required a little guidance is given.
2) Learners read the problems that are in the LKS and make individual notes about what he knows and does not know in the matter. When learners make small notes this will happen the process of thinking (think) in learners. After that learners try to solve the problem individually. This activity aims to learners can distinguish or unite ideas contained in the reading to then be translated into their own language.
3) Learners discuss with friends in the group discuss the contents of the note he made and solving problems done individually (talk). In this activity they use their own language and words to convey mathematical ideas in the discussion. Discussion is expected to produce a solution to the given problem. Discussion will be effective if group members are not too numerous and consist of group members with heterogeneous capabilities. This is in line with Huinker and Laughlin’s (1996: 82) opinion that “TTW methods will be effective when learners work in heterogeneous groups of 2 to 6 learners working to explain, summarize, or reflect.”
4) From the results of the discussion, students individually formulate knowledge in the form of answers to the problem (contains the basis and relevance of concepts, methods, and solutions) in the form of writing (writing) with his own language. In that paper the learner connects the ideas that he gets through the discussion.
5) Group representatives present the results of group discussions, while other groups are asked to respond.
6) The final activity of learning is to make reflections and conclusions on the material being studied. Prior to that, selected or one of the learners as representatives of the group to present the answer, while other groups were asked to respond.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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